Развитие торговли в России тормозят местные власти, таможня и налоговики

Эти факты отмечены в проекте стратегии развития торговли в России до 2020 года, размещенном на сайте минпромторга.

В документе подробно прописаны ключевые проблемы, препятствующие развитию торговли, а также предложены пути их решения. Итак, на первом месте в этом списке — проблемы, связанные с государственным регулированием торговли. Как отмечено в проекте стратегии, некоторые аспекты торговой деятельности чрезмерно зарегулированы, ряд нормативно-правовых актов допускают неоднозначное толкование или противоречат друг другу. В некоторых случаях отсутствует четкое разграничение полномочий по регулированию торговли между федеральными и региональными властями, пишет Российская газета.

Одним из главных препятствий для развития торговли в стране являются, по мнению экспертов минпромторга, местные власти, злоупотребляющие своими полномочиями. Они часто имеют личную заинтересованность в бизнесе региональных розничных компаний и препятствуют конкуренции, затягивая выдачу разрешений на строительство, лицензий и других документов новым игрокам. Кроме того, высокий уровень коррупции существенно увеличивает необходимые для развития торговли инвестиции и расходы, что снижает инвестиционную привлекательность отрасли.

Впрочем, свой «вклад» в торможение торговли вносят и другие структуры. Так, в оптовой торговле есть злоупотребления со стороны сотрудников таможенных органов. Отмечаются неоправданно длительные сроки оформления грузов, халатное обращение с ними, неправильное хранение, приводящие в отдельных случаях к порче или полной потере товара.

Налоговое законодательство приводит к избыточному объему бухгалтерской отчетности и низкому уровню применения патентов самозанятыми и малыми семейными компаниями, что стимулирует сокрытие доходов. В итоге доля теневого оборота, по экспертным оценкам, составляет 42 процента от фактического оборота (в том числе 16 процентов не отражается в официальной отчетности, 26 процентов составляют контракты с фирмами по обналичиванию). Выпадение оборота малых предприятий из легальной экономики оценивается в 36,5-49 миллиардов долларов.

Среди других проблем торговли выделяется недостаточность инфраструктуры. Например, хранилища в России традиционно находятся в местах потребления. Там же, где ловится рыба или производится сельхозпродукция, холодильников катастрофически не хватает. Результат: россияне едят мяса на 68 процентов меньше, чем положено, молока — на 61 процент, яиц — на 88 процентов, рыбы — на 56 процентов. Около 5 процентов населения страны вовсе не имеют доступа к торговым точкам, так как продавцам невыгодно открывать магазины в населенных пунктах с невысоким платежеспособным спросом и недостаточно развитой инфраструктурой.

Россия существенно отстает в развитии малого и среднего предпринимательства. Его вклад в ВВП страны не превышает 12 процентов, тогда как в США — более 50 процентов.

Стратегия должна восполнить все эти пробелы. Она предполагает развитие инфраструктуры, стимулирование торговли в малых и отдаленных населенных пунктах, а также дистанционной торговли, обеспечение конкуренции, поддержку государством малого и среднего бизнеса.

08:52, 29.06.2010 г. — VestiRegion.ru

VestiRegion.ru → Горячие новости → Развитие торговли в России тормозят местные власти, таможня и налоговики

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