Учёные нашли в Якутии останки двух млекопитающих времён динозавров

Палеонтологи из Германии и России обнаружили на юге Якутии остатки двух древних млекопитающих, указавших на существование своеобразной «эпохи застоя» в жизни полярной фауны Земли в конце юрского и в начале мелового периода. Их выводы были представлены в журнале PLoS One.

«Примитивные млекопитающие, которых мы нашли в меловых отложениях — фактически „живые ископаемые“ своего времени. Считается, что между юрским и меловым периодами произошло достаточно серьезное вымирание, однако на территории Сибири не происходило никак фатальных событий и перемен фауны в течение примерно 40 миллионов лет. Для сравнения, первые люди появились на Земле около 2,5 миллиона лет назад», — рассказывает Павел Скучас из Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета.

Первые млекопитающие появились на нашей планете примерно 220-225 миллионов лет назад, ближе к концу триасового периода, одновременно с первыми примитивными динозаврами. После своего появления, древние теплокровные животные очень быстро распространились по всей Земле.

Первые примитивные представители нашего класса были относительно небольших размеров. Судя по структуре их зубов, они питались однообразной диетой, в основном насекомыми. Основной бум их эволюции начался только после того, как вымерли динозавры, не позволявшие им занять новые экологические ниши.

Российские и немецкие ученые раскрыли одну из любопытных деталей из жизни древнейших родичей человека и других современных млекопитающих, проводя раскопки на юге Якутии, на территории Сунтарского района республики, где залегают породы начала мелового периода, сформировавшиеся 120-125 миллионов лет назад.

В то время Якутия и вся Восточная Сибирь находились близко к северному полюсу Земли, и поэтому периодические открытия остатков «полярных» динозавров и прочих животных всегда вызывали огромный интерес среди палеонтологов.

Год назад Скучас и его коллеги начали новый раунд раскопок в этом уголке Якутии, изучая отложения мелового периода, сформировавшиеся в окрестностях ручья Тээтэ. Помимо остатков динозавров, а также мелких рептилий, рыб, черепах и прочих животных, ученым удалось найти три фрагмента челюстей и зубов млекопитающих.

Одна из них принадлежала млекопитающему из группы харамиид – предположительно самых древних «настоящих» млекопитающих Земли, а две других – представителям ранее неизвестных родов и видов теплокровных существ. Все три были похожи на современных землероек по размерам и диете, но при этом, конечно, они не являются их предками или даже родичами.

Первое новое млекопитающее получило имя Khorotherium yakutensis в честь Якутии и деревни Хоро, чьи жители регулярно помогают палеонтологам проводить раскопки на берегах ручья Тээтэ. Второе было названо Sangarotherium aquilonium, наследуя имя от так называемых «сангарских отложений», в которых были найдены его зубы и фрагменты челюсти. 

«Это представители двух групп примитивных млекопитающих — эутриконодонтов и докодонтов. У первых зубы были похожи на маленькие трезубцы — три их вершины стоят в одну линию, это очень примитивное строение. А вот докодонты свои зубы попытались усложнить: у них больше бугорков и есть жевательная поверхность», — продолжает Скучас.

В то время Землю уже должны были населять не только первые сумчатые, но и плацентарные млекопитающие, о чем свидетельствуют многочисленные находки их остатков в Китае, Монголии и в других уголках планеты.
Соответственно, присутствие древних эутрикодонтов, докодонтов и харамиид в Якутии в то время говорит о том, что ее фауна была «заморожена» и не менялась на протяжении очень долгого времени, несколько десятков миллионов лет. Как это произошло и затронул ли подобный «застой» других животных – пока не понятно.

По словам Скучаса, его команда еще раз отправится к берегам ручья Тээтэ в ближайшие дни для продолжения раскопок и решения этой палеонтологической загадки, сообщает РИА Новости.

20:01, 26.07.2018 г. — VestiRegion.ru

VestiRegion.ru → Горячие новости → Учёные нашли в Якутии останки двух млекопитающих времён динозавров

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